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Avelar Brotero
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Félix de Avelar Brotero, was born in 1744, in Santo Antão do Tojal (Portugal). He was a Knight of the Order of S. Bento de Avis. He qualified as Medical doctor by the University of Reims. In 1791, he was nominated professor of Botany and Agriculture at the University of Coimbra, a post he combined with being director of the Botanical Gardens until 1811. that year he retired from teaching and took up the post of Director of the Real Museum and Botanical Gardens of Ajuda in Lisbon. In 1821, he was elected representative for Estremadura in the Chamber of Lords.

He produced a vast scientific botanic bibliography of great value, amongst which is the “Flora Lusitânica” (Lusitanian Flora). He was a member of the Linnean Society of London and of the Royal Horticultural Society, and member of various academies: Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa, (Real Academy of Science of Lisbon) Academy of Natural History and Philomatic of Paris, the Physiographic Academy of Lunden in Sweden, the Academy of Natural History of Rostock and of the Academy of Cesarea of Bonn.

He died in 1828, in Lisbon.

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Júlio Henriques
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Júlio Augusto Henriques was born in 1838, in Cabeceiras de Basto (Portugal). He obtained a Bachelor of Law, at the University of Coimbra, in 1860. At the same University he passed a Degree in Philosophy in 1864 and a Doctorate (PhD) in 1865. In 1866, he became a Tutor at the Faculty of Philosophy. On 17th January 1873, he was nominated Fellow of the University lecturer responsible for the subjects of Botany and Agriculture and Director of the Botanical Gardens. While serving this institution he started a Library and museum for the study of Botany. He bought the valuable Willkomm herbarium. In 1880, he founded the Broterian Society and its Bulletins. In 1918, he was retired from his position.

His scientific activity was prosperous. He published many Botany studies and was a member of various scientific institutions, amongst which are the “Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa” (Lisbon Geographical Society), Botany Society of France, National Society of Acclimatization of France, the Society of Economics of Madrid, the Botanical Society of Copenhagen, and the Academy of Science of France. He retired as professor and director of Botanical Gardens in 1918 at the age of 80, but continued to work as a Botanist and Director of the Herbarium until his death.

He died in Coimbra, in 1928.

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Luís Carrisso
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Luís Wittnich Carrisso, was born in 1886, in Figueira da Foz. He graduated from the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Coimbra, in 1910 where he also did a PhD and continued as a Lecturer of the Biological Science Group. He was a professor; Secretary of the Faculty of Science (1917-1919), Director of the Museum and of the Botanic Laboratory (1919-1922); Director of the Botanical Gardens (1919-1922); Interim Rector of the University of Coimbra (1930-1931); Director of the Botanic Institute (until 1937); President of the Town Council of Coimbra; President of the Works Committee of the University city; President of the works council of Secondary and Technical Education; Member of the Council of Colonial Empire.

He was chairman of the Broterian Society and member of various other scientific societies; Société Botanique de France (Paris), Société de Bio-Géographie (Paris), Société Botanique de Genève, Société de Physique et d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève, Institut Colonial International (Bruxelas), Société Portugaise de Biologie, Portuguese Anatomic Society, Society of Geography of Lisbon, Institute of Coimbra, Society of studies of Angola, Society of studies of the Mozambique Colony.

He was the author of many Biologic, historic and biographic works, amongst others, published in scientific magazines. He took part in various international meetings of Botany. He was the Portuguese delegate at an International Conference for the protection of the Fauna and Flora of Africa (London, 1933). He represented the University of Coimbra in the commemorative celebrations of the 4th Century of the College of France (1931) and also the 3rd Century of the Natural History Museum of Paris and the French Academy. (1935).

He was the holder of various important titles, such as “Grande Oficial da Ordem de S. Tiago de Espada”, Knight of the Order of Leopold II of Belgium, Knight of the Legion of Honour and posthumously, on the 1st of September 1937 he was awarded the “Grã-Cruz da Ordem de Instrução Pública” (Portuguese insignia awarded for exceptional services to the country).

He died in the desert of Moçâmedes, in Angola on the 6th June 1937.

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Adolfo Möller

Adolpho Frederico Möller, was born in 1842, in Lisbon (Portugal), where he did his first studies. From 1857 to 1860, he did a course in Practical sylviculture in Germany. On his return to Portugal, between 1860 and 1865, he served in the General Administration of the Kingdom’s Forests and in the National Pine Forests of “Machada and Vale do Zebro”. In 1865, he moved to Coimbra, serving in the Management Committee of the Public Works of Coimbra and in the Forest department of the said board to manage the works of the Mondego. He was nominated inspector of the Botanical Gardens of Coimbra, in 1874. It was at the service of the latter that he performed a valuable service to Science, as a collector of animal and plant species both in Portugal and in Africa. He carried out a very important scientific expedition to São Tomé e Principe.

He was an honorary member of the Lusitana Pharmaceutical Society and correspondent of the Geographic Society and of the Promoting Society of the Manufacturing Industry.

He wrote various scientific publications and in various herbaria.

He died in Lisbon in 1920.

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Joaquim de Mariz
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Joaquim de Mariz Junior was born in 1847, in Coimbra (Portugal). He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Coimbra. In 1879 he became an assistant Botanist teaching Botany at the University of Coimbra, a position he held until the time of his death. He was an important Botany taxonomist. During his period, he revised the extensive herbarium of the Coimbra Botanical Gardens. He devoted himself to the study of the Portuguese Phanerogamic flora, writing important botanic descriptive works of various families.

His name is linked to the Broterian Society, of which he was a member and prominent collaborator. He carried out an important scientific expedition to Trás-os-Montes, where they made a thorough study of the region. He died in 1916.

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Aurélio Quintanilha
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Aurélio Pereira da Silva Quintanilha was born in 1892, in the Azores. He graduated in Natural Historical Sciences at the Faculty of Science of the University of Lisbon, in 1919. In 1926, he got a PhD by the University of Coimbra, were he was a professor, for 9 years, and he held positions such as Director of the Botanic Laboratory and Secretary of the Faculty of Science, during 1927. From 1928 to 1931, he was the Lecturer of Portuguese at the University of Berlin and studied the sexuality of mushrooms at the Pflanzenphysiologisches Institut. From 1943 to 1982, he was Director of the “Centro de Investigação Científica da Algodeira” (Scientific Research Centre for the cotton-plant), in Lourenço Marques (presently Maputo), Mozambique.

He took part in various Congresses, such as: IV International Botanic Congress of London (1930), V International Botanic Congress of Amsterdam (1935), International Congress of Genetics of Edinburgh (1939), VI International Botanic Congress of Stockholm (1950), International Luso-Spanish Botanic Congress for the Progress of Sciences in Lisbon (1950), VII International Botanic Congress of Paris (1954), International Genetic Congress of Montreal (1958), etc.

Of all the Scientific Societies he belonged to, the most important are: Sociedade Broteriana (Broterian society), Societé Botanique de France, Société Mycologique de France, Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft, Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências Naturais (Portuguese Society of Natural science), Société Portugaise de Biologie, Sociedade Portuguesa de Biologia (Portuguese Society of Biology), Sociedade de Estudos de Mozambique (Society of Studies of Mozambique). He was elected correspondent member of the Science Academy of Lisbon in 1958.

His scientific career is internationally known, and he was awarded various prizes which include: the Hansen Prize for Microbiology in 1937 (Copenhagen), the Arthur Malheiros prize in 1943, by the Lisbon Science Academy, the title of Honorary Doctor, in 1943 by the University of Witwatersrand (South Africa) and, in 1983, the title of Doctor Honouris Causa by the Faculty of Science of Lisbon.

In 1972, the Portuguese Government awarded him the “Grau de Grande Oficial da Ordem Militar de Santiago da Espada” and, in 1987, he received the “Ordem da Liberdade” (Order of Freedom), awarded by the State President at the time, General Ramalho Eanes.

He died in Lisbon in 1987.

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Domenico Vandelli

Domenico Agostino Vandelli was born in 1735, in Padua (Italy). He completed degrees in Natural Philosophy and Medicine at the University of Padua, in 1761 where he also got the degree as Medical doctor. In 1772, he joined the University of Coimbra, as a lecturer in Natural History and Chemistry and graduated as Doctor in Philosophy and Medicine. At the University of Coimbra, he was Director of the Chemistry Laboratory in 1772, and Dean and Director of the Faculty of Philosophy, in 1777. He retired from Teaching in 1791.

He founded various Botanical Gardens in Portugal, namely: The Botanical Gardens of Ajuda in Lisbon, in 1768; the Botanical Gardens of Coimbra, in 1772; the Botanical Gardens of the Monteiro-Mor Palace in Lisbon in the 1750’s. He was the director of the first two.

He led various scientific expeditions, in Italy and Portugal, where more than one hundred new species were discovered for science. He published various important studies on scientific and economic topics, namely about descriptive Botany and Agricultural Economy.

He was a member of various societies: Royal Society of London, Royal Academy of Science of Lisbon, the Academies of Science of Uppsala, Lausitz, Padua and Florence. He was a member of Masonry, commendator of the Order of Christ, and member of the Royal council of Commerce, Agriculture, Manufacturing and Navigation.

He died in 1816, in Lisbon.

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